Maqāsīd al-Sharīa in the Fatwa of the Indonesian Ulama Council Regarding Congregational Worship During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors

  • Nurhayati Nurhayati Universitas Islam Negeri Sumatera Utara
  • Muhammad Syukri Albani Nasution Universitas Islam Negeri Sumatera Utara

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14421/ajish.v54i2.895

Abstract views: 752 PDF downloads: 531

Keywords:

MUI, fatwa, maqāsīd al-sharīa, worship, COVID-19

Abstract

Abstract: The implementation of worship in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially congregational worship, has led to a debatable problem among Muslims, including Muslims in Indonesia. Various Islamic groups in Indonesia share different opinions and views on the practice of worship during the pandemic. On the one hand, some groups reinforce that the COVID-19 pandemic should not become a barrier or hinder the religious practices. On the other hand, some others insisted that the practice of worship during the COVID-19 period must comply with predetermined health protocols. If necessary, it must be temporarily stopped to avoid the spread of the COVID-19 cases. In this regard, the Indonesian Ulama Council (MUI) issued fatwa number 14/2020 concerning the implementation of worship in the COVID-19 outbreak situation. This article examines and explores the basis and considerations of the MUI in establishing a fatwa regarding the implementation of worship during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using qualitative analysis methods and the theory of maqāsīd al-sharīa, this research concludes that restrictions on the implementation of worship during the pandemic - or even prohibiting the practice of congregational worship for prone areas COVID-19 transmission - are based on considerations of benefit,. which is the essence of maqāsīd al-sharīa. The aim is to ensure five primary things (faith, soul,  mind,  offspring, and wealth). Hence, anything that can interfere with or threaten the existence of these five things must be avoided.

 

Abstrak: Pelaksanaan ibadah di era pandemi COVID-19, khususnya ibadah yang dilakukan secara berjamaah, telah menjadi persoalan tersendiri di kalangan umat Islam, dan tidak terkecuali untuk umat Islam di Indonesia. Berbagai kalangan memiliki pendapat dan pandangan yang berbeda-beda. Sebagian mereka berpandangan bahwa pandemi COVID-19 tidak boleh menjadi penghalang atau menghalangi pelaksanaan ibadah. Pada sisi lain, tidak sedikit juga yang berpandangan bahwa pelaksanaan ibadah di masa COVID-19 harus diatur sedemikian rupa dan jika perlu dihentikan sementara untuk menghindari semakin merebaknya kasus COVID-19. Berkenaan dengan hal tersebut, Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI) mengeluarkan Fatwa Nomor 14/2020 tentang Penyelenggaraan Ibadah dalam Situasi Wabah COVID-19. Artikel ini mengkaji dan mengeksplorasi dasar dan pertimbangan MUI dalam menetapkan fatwa tentang penyelenggaraan ibadah di masa pandemi COVID-19 tersebut. Dengan menggunakan metode analisis kualitatif dan teori maqāsīd al-sharīa  penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa pembatasan pelaksanaan ibadah di masa pandemi—atau bahkan pelarangan pelaksanaan ibadah secara berjamaah untuk daerah-daerah yang yang memiliki potensi tinggi dalam penularan COVID-19—didasarkan pada pertimbangan kemaslahatan yang merupakan inti dari maqāsīd al-sharīa. Tujuannya adalah menjamin perlindungan lima hal primer (agama, akal, jiwa, keturunan dan harta). Segala sesuatu yang potensial menganggu atau mengancam eksistensi kelima hal tersebut harus dihindari.

References

Abdullah, Taufik (Chief Editor). Ensiklopedi Tematis Dunia Islam. Jakarta: Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, 2002.

Abubakar, Ali. “Reinterpretasi Shalat Jumat (Kajian Dalil dan Pendapat Ulama)”. Media Syariah 13, No. 2 (2011): 169-178.

al-Buti, M. Saud Ramadan. Dawabit Al-Maslahah. Beirut: Muassasah al-Risalah, 1986.

Ali, Muhammad Daud. Hukum Islam. Jakarta: RajaGrafindo Persada, 2004.

Ali, Zezen Zainul. “Social Distancing Upaya Pencegahan Penyebaran COVID-19 Perspektif Maqashid al-Syariah”. Nizham 8, No. 01 (June 2020): p. 82-94. https://doi.org/10.32332/nizham.v8i01 .2130.

Amin, Ahmad. Fajr Al-Islam. Kairo: Maktabah al-Nahdiah al-Misriyah, 1975.

Anindya, Nirmalasanti Pramesi. “Implementasi Maqashid Syari’ah dalam Menghadapi Wabah COVID-19”. Medina-Te: Jurnal Studi Islam 16, No. 1 (2020): p. 1-11.

Asmuni. Studi Pemikiran Al-Maqasid (Upaya Menemukan Pondasi Ijtihad Akademik yang Dinamis). Jurnal Mawarid, No. 14 (2005).

Auda, Jasser. Maqāsīd al-sharīa as Philosophy of Islamic Law: A Systems Approach. Herndon: The International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2010.

“Decree of the Minister of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia No. 494 of 2020 Concerning Cancellation of the Departure of Hajj Pilgrims at the Hajj Holding Year 1441 H / 2020 AD,” n.d. https://kemenag.go.id/home/artikel/43372/keputusan-menteri-agama-nomor-494-tahun-2020-tentang-pembatalan-keberangkatan-jemaah-haji-pada-penyelenggaraan-ibadah-haji-tahun-1441-h--2020-m.

Ebrahim SH, Memish ZA. “COVID-19 — the Role of Mass Gatherings.” Travel Med Infect Dis, 2020.

Erman. “Rekonstruksi Ketentuan Shalat Jumat.” Kutubkhanah: Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan 14, no. 1 (2011). http://ejournal.uin-suska.ac.id/index.php/Kutubkhanah/article/view/275/258.

F, Firdaus. “There Are Still Friday Prayers in the Mosque, People Asked to Obey MUI Fatwa.” Okezone.com [Internet], 2020. https://www.okezone.com/tren/read/2020/04/15/620/2199471/masih-ada-sholat-jumat-di-masjid-masyarakat-diminta-patuhi-fatwa-mui.

Gao, Q., Hu, Y., Dai, Z., Xiao, F., Wang, J., & Wu, J. “The Epidemiological Characteristics of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) in Jingmen, China”. Medicine 99, No. 23 (2020). https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3548755.

Gharbal, Syafiq. “Al-Mausuah Al-Arabiyah Al-Mayussarah.” Kairo: Dar al-Qalam, 1965.

al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid. Al-Mustashfa Min Ilm Al-Ushul. Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Turats al-Arabi, n.d., n.d.

https://Mui.or.Id/Berita/28136/Mui-Ada-Alasan-Syari-Dibalik-Pembatalan-Haji/, n.d.

Hakim, Muhammad Lutfi. “Pergeseran Paradigma Maqashid Al-Syariah dari Klasik Sampai Kontemporer.” Al-Manahij 10, No 1 (2016): p. 1-16.

Hikmat, Mahi.M. et. all. Implementasi Maqasid Syari’ah dalam Ikhtiar Memutus Mata Rantai Persebaran COVID-19 di Indonesia. Bandung: Pusat Perpustakaan UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung, 2020.

Ibn Asyur, Muhammad al-Thahir. “Treatise on Maqashid Al-Sharia.” In Translated from Arabic from Mohamed El-Tahir El-Mesawi. London, Washington: The International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2006.

Jauhar, Ahmad al-Mursi Husain. “Maqashid Al-Syariah Fi Al-Islam.” In Translation. Khikmawati, Maqashid Syariah. Jakarta: Amzah, 2009.

al-Juwaini. Al-Burhan Fi Ushul Al-Fiqh. Kairo: Dar Anahar, n.d.

Khasan, Moh. “Kedudukan Maqashid Al-Syariah in Pembaharuan Hukum Islam.” Dimas 8, no. 2 (2008).

Kisworo, Budi. “Ibadah Haji Ditinjau dari Berbagai Aspek.” Al Istinbath: Jurnal Hukum Islam 2, No. 1 (2017): 75-98.

Kompas.com. “This Is MUI’s Direction Regarding Ramadan Worship During the COVID-19 Pandemic,” n.d. This is MUI’s Direction Regarding Ramadan Worship During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Lubis, Nur A. Fadhil. “Hukum Islam dalam Kerangka Teori Fikih dan Tata Hukum Indonesia.” Medan: Pustaka Widyasarana, 1995.

Mansur, Ibnu. Lisan Al-Arab. Beirut: Dar al-Sadr, n.d, n.d.

Mardani. “Ushul Fiqh.” Jakarta: RajaGrafindo Persada, 2013.

Muhyidin. “Maqashid Al-Syariah (Tujuan-Tujuan Hukum Islam) Sebagai Pondasi Dasar Pengembangan Hukum”. Gema Keadilan 6, No. 1 (2019): p. 13-32.

“MUI’s Fatwa Number 28 in 2020 Regarding Guidelines for Kaifiat Takbir and Eid Prayers during the COVID-19 Pandemic,” n.d. https://mui.or.id/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Fatwa-MUI-No-28-Tahun-2020-tentang-Panduan-Kaifiat-Takbir-dan-Shalat-Idul-Fitri-saat-COVID-19.pdf.

“MUI’s Fatwa Number 31 in 2020 Regarding the Implementation of Friday Prayers and Jamah to Prevent COVID-19 Transmission,” n.d. https://mui.or.id/wp content/uploads/2020/06/FATWA-MUI-NO-31-TAHUN-2010-TENTANG-PENYELENGGARAAN-SHALAT-JUM’AT-DAN-JAMAAH-UNTUK-MENCEGAH-PENULARAN-WABAH-COVID-19.pdf.

Musolli. “Maqashid Syariah: Kajian Teoritis dan Aplikatif pada Isu-isu Kontemporer”. At-Turas: Jurnal Studi Keislaman 5, No. 1 (2018): 60-81.

Nizar, Muhammad Choirun. “Literatur Kajian Maqashid Syariah”, Ulul Albab: Ulul Albab, Jurnal Studi dan Penelitian Hukum Islam, No. 35 (2016): p. 53-68.

Raysuni, Ahmad al-. Nazariyyat al-Maqâsid 'Inda al-Imam al-Shatibi, Beirut: al-Ma'had al-'Alami li al- Fikr al- Islami, 1995.

Rusyd, Ibn. “Bidayah Al-Mujtahid.” Mesir: Mustafa Bab al-Halab li al-Nasr, 1960.

Sabiq, Sayid. “Fiqh Sunnah.” Jakarta: Cakrawala Publishing, 2009.

Saenong, Faried F. and friends. “Fikih Pandemi Beribadah di Masa Wabah.” Jakarta: NUO Publishing, 2020.

Sinaga, Nurhayati and Ali Imran. “Fiqh dan Ushul Fiqh.” Jakarta: Prenadamedia Group, 2017.

Subrata, Sumarno Adi and Merses Varia Dewi. “Puasa Ramadhan dalam Perspektif Kesehatan: Literatur Review.” Khazanah: Jurnal Studi Islam dan Humaniora 15, No. 2 (2017): 241-262.

Syarifuddin, Amir. “Ushul Fiqh.” Jakarta: Logos Wacana Ilmu, 1997.

al-Syatibi, Abu Ishaq. Al-Muwafaqat Fi Ushul Al-Syariah. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah, 2003.

Syukri, Muhammad Albani Nasution. “Filsafat Hukum Islam.” Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2016.

Syukri, Muhammad Syukri Albani Nasution & Rahmad Hidayat Nasution. “Filsafat Hukum Islam & Maqashid Syariah.” Jakarta: Kencana, 2020.

al-Thahir, Muhammad ibn Asyur. “Treatise on Maqashid Al-Sharia.” London, Washington: The International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2006.

World Health Organisation (WHO). Infection Prevention and Control for the Safe Management of a Dead Body in the Context of COVID-19, 2020.

Yusdani. “Ijtihad dan Nazariyyah Itibar Al-Maal.” Quoted from www.Yusdani.Com, n.d.

Zuhaili, Wahbah. “Ushul Al-Fiqh Al-Islami.” Kairo: Dar al-Fikr, 1986.

______. “Fiqh Islam Wa Adillatuhu.” Jakarta: Darul Fikri, 2011.

Downloads

Published

10-09-2020

How to Cite

Nurhayati, N., & Nasution, M. S. A. (2020). Maqāsīd al-Sharīa in the Fatwa of the Indonesian Ulama Council Regarding Congregational Worship During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Asy-Syir’ah: Jurnal Ilmu Syari’ah Dan Hukum, 54(2), 251–275. https://doi.org/10.14421/ajish.v54i2.895

Issue

Section

Articles